Alcoholic fermentation

Type of metabolism allowing the cell to acquire energy by transforming glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic

Organism that does not require oxygen.

Bacteria

Living unicellular prokaryote being.

Beer head

Yeast rising to the surface of the liquid to form foam when the beer ferments.

Bioavailability
Carbon dioxide

= oxidised carbon (C02) i.e. its peripheral electrons are attracted by oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide is part of mineral matter.

Cell

The smallest constitutive and functional unit of a living being. All cells consist of a cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane and containing genetic information.

Cell nucleus

Large-sized cellular organite that characterises eukaryotic cells. It contains practically all cellular DNA.

Chromosome

Molecular structure of the cell consisting of a long DNA molecule where the genetic information of living beings is stored.

DNA

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid: constitutive molecule of chromosomes, containing genetic information. DNA is found in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Eukaryotic organism

Organism with cells containing various organites surrounded by a membrane, in particular the nucleus containing genetic information, one or several vacuoles, chloroplasts and mitochondria. Their size usually ranges between 10 and 100 micrometres.

Fermentation

Incomplete breakdown of an organic substrate with the production of energy.

Fungus

Organism belonging to the mycete family, with differentiated nucleus cells. They can be unicellular (yeasts) or multicellular.

Genes

A genetic information unit that determines hereditary traits. A gene corresponds to a sequence of nucleotides and governs protein synthesis. It is said that a gene encodes a protein.

Genome

The whole genetic material (DNA) of a living being.

Glucose

Simple sugar - C6H12O6 - found in all living cells.

Mitochondria

A cellular organite, the mitochondrion is where cellular respiration occurs.

Organite

Specialised cellular structure, sometimes surrounded by a membrane, located in the cell's cytoplasm.

Prokaryotic organism

Simple cell that does not have an organite surrounded by a membrane. Its genetic information is carried by a free chromosome in the cytoplasm. It is a few micrometres in size and usually smaller than an eukaryotic organism.

Sourdough

Mixture of flour and water where naturally present germs such as yeasts and acidifying bacteria are left to develop to produce lactic and acetic acid.

Telomers

Extremities of chromosomes.



Sources :
  • BAUDE, Denis et al. SVT 1ère S Programme 2011. France : Bordas, Avril 2011. 360 p.
  • BREUIL, Michel. Dictionnaire des Sciences de la vie et de la terre. Italie : Nathan, octobre 2002. 544 p.
  • CYNOBER, Anne et al. SVT 2de Programme 2011. Italie : Hatier, Août 2011. 287 p.
  • Encyclopédie Hachette Multimédia 2005. France : Hachette, avril 2004